Slovenia from 1992
Croatia from 1995
Albania (Mediana sh.p.k.) and
Serbia (Mediana Adria) from 2007
Macedonia (Mediana Marketing solutions) since 2011


Ad: method of communicating with public with the aim of informing or influencing.

Ad hoc research:
research that deals with a specific problem, focused on specific respondents in a specific time frame.

Ad recognition: buyer or consumer recognizes certain individual products or services, because of the knowledge, acquired from advertising

Advertising campaign: use of different media of communication and advertising messages, which are used to inform the consumers and deepen their knowledge of products or services in the market.

Aided recall: is a measuring technique in which the interviewer helps respondents to remember parts of advertising message or the complete advertising message. Memory aids can be visual (logo cards) or descriptive.

Audience: population or target group: readers of print media, radio listeners, TV viewers, all that for instance noticed specific ads, users of products or services etc.

makes it possible to put together larger samples of groups of people, as would be possible with representative sampling. Usually, this is the case with specific groups of respondents (for instance top managers). To achieve samples large enough, quota must be set and later translated to the entire population. By doing that, this specific group does not stand out. Also known as “blown-up samples”.

product or service from a certain provider, carrying functional or emotional and symbolical meanings, which increase its value. The differentiation from competitors is of strategic meaning for a brand.

Brand awareness: awareness of the consumers about existence and characteristics of a brand.

Brand development:
developing and establishing the name and sign or symbol which identify the product or service of a certain bidder and thus differentiate it from other offers in the market

Brand loyalty:
readiness of consumers to choose a product or service of a certain bidder between all products or services.

Brand recognition: when confronted with the product or service, buyers remember previous confrontation with the brand

CAPI: personal interview, in which the interviewer uses a personal computer to enter the data into the questionnaire. By this we avoid any mistakes and ensure higher quality and quicker analysis.

CATI: telephone interview, by which the answers are input directly into a computer. That expedites the interviewing and ensures faster and quality data collection.

Circulation: in print media research, this is a number of copies of publications sold, sent to subscribers, sent free of charge to certain addresses or distributed among readers in any other way. It does not include the copies that were printed, but not distributed.

Consumer: person who uses products or services.

Consumer behavior: behavior of the consumer in certain situations based on recognition and loyalty to the brand and on the buying habits.

Consumer image: image about a person, who represents a potential buyer of the brand. Image is formed based on the lifestyle, behavior and other demographic variables.

Consumer research
: research of characteristics which are true for consumers and are typical of their behavior in the market.

Consumer satisfaction: satisfaction of the consumer with products or services of the bidder. A criteria of a company when satisfying the needs of the consumer.

Consumer segment:
a group of buyers in the market which share common characteristics, for example income, gender, lifestyle, consumer habits.

Content analysis: term used to describe quantitative content analysis, usually referring to the manifest content of a text. It requires a development of a coding list, which is used for identification of gathered characteristics. It is a useful method when analyzing a more extensive text. Content analysis is also possible as a qualitative study, usually used to detect sing and symbolic meanings of text or its units.

Coverage: part of the target group, who has the option to see or hear one or more advertisements.

natural of legal person who uses the products or services of someone else.

Customer profile: characteristics of a customer which affect his/hers behavior in the market

Customer satisfaction: evaluation of quality of services, offered by a company. Thereby also represents a definition of consumer attitude towards brands and services of the company. It is one of key indicators of business success.

Demographics: statistical characteristics of a population or a group of users: gender, age, size of household, education, income etc.

Desktop research:
overview, analysis and comparison of data from already published research. Main sources include chambers of commerce, data from statistical offices, such as census, data on import and export etc.

media research diaries are usually put together by individual brochures with one or two pages for each day in a week. Names of TV and radio programs are listed on top of each sheet and time periods at the sides of the sheet. Respondents take down their viewing or listening activity in the remaining page. When doing readership research, the diary is held for reading of one or more publications in a certain time period.

Focus group:
simultaneous individual interviews in a group of a few respondents. They are usually held as a group discussion between participants.

how many times is an individual exposed to seeing or hearing an ad or advertising campaign in one or more medias in a certain time period.

Frequency of readership: estimate of frequency of exposure to publications.

Frequent users:
People who buy, use or spend above average quantity of products or services. People, who watch television or listen to radio above average, are known as “heavy viewers” or “heavy listeners” or frequent viewers /frequent listeners

GRP: sum of ratings for individual ads. GRP is a ratings sum.

Household: Hgroup of people living together and sharing costs for food and other household necessities.

Incentive: when conducting longer questionnaires or focus groups, respondents often receive an incentive. It is a gift given for the time the research takes and not an incentive to actually take part in the research.

In-depth interview:
unstructured personal interview, during which the interviewer incourages the respondent to express his opinion.

percentage that links numbers to basics. It shows results above average (101 or more), average (100) and below average (99 or less).

Index of brand development:
number of cases or monetary units of a brand, sold at a 1000 consumers. It is calculated by dividing the percentage of sales on the market with the population percentage in the same market.

Interactive research: term used to describe the internet as a research tool.

Interval scale: measurement, done by comparing sizes and differences between individual links.

the person who conducts the interview.

Last reading:
an expression describing the technique, used to evaluate levels of readership. These are acquired by asking the respondents when they last read of looked through an issue of a certain publication. It marks average audience of a printed media’s issues.

Latent contents:
meaning of text, which includes wider cultural values besides the basic description. The word connotation is frequently used to describe the cultural meaning of text or sign systems (if jeans pants represent a manifest form, the label sports attire represents a latent content of the sign system).

Lifestyle: classification of people according to views and beliefs; enrichment of the conventional demographics.

Logo card: card with a logo of a company or a brand, used by aided recall in an interview.

Manifest contents: description of a verbal or visual material. Used also under the term denotation, used to describe the clear and obvious meaning of text or sign systems. It is the opposite of latent contents (if jeans pants represent a manifest form, the label sports attire represents a latent content of the sign system).

Market spreadsheet:
graphical presentation of brand positions in relation to one another; brands are positions according to the consumer’s opinion on them on the market.

Media plan:
plan of advertising campaign with data about the used ads, messages, media, dates and time of advertising, number of ads etc.

explanation of methods, techniques and procedures of sampling the research.

Moderator: person guiding the team discussion. It is the moderator’s task to encourage participants into expressing their opinions on certain subjects.

Multilevel sampling:
preparation of a nationally representative multilevel sample includes several levels of recruitment: region, district and addresses of individuals. On first level we would talk about recruitment by regions, voting districts and telephone network groups, on second level about the choice of municipalities, communities or streets and on the third level about individual choices of individuals.

Mystery shopping: a popular method of research among larger companies, such as supermarkets, technical stores and banks. The term represents a research of service or attitude towards customers. Mystery shopper, who is beforehand aware of his assignments, prepares a report about the services on previously based criteria.

Non-weighed data: respondents who were successfully interviewed or returned useful questionnaire before the sample was weighed. It is also called a non-weighed database.

NRB: National readership study.

Observation method:
method of collecting data by observation. All important facts and behavior (actions) must be taken down.

Observational research:
includes the method of mystery shoppers and studies of consumer behavior; research in which interviewers report on observed activities but do not ask about them. There are two possible scenarios: observation where the observer asks about the meaning of the behavior and classical observation, where posting questions is not possible.

Ad hoc quantitative study, where several clients share on questionnaire (telephone or personal interviewing). It enables reaching of a large sample, especially when there are fewer questions. Omnibus is inexpensive especially when sampling groups of people, which are more difficult and hence more expensive to recruit. Inexpensiveness also shows in the fact that such groups usually represent subgroups of population that the omnibus is based on.

Omnibus panel:
panel where information is gathered from a panel of participants, but the participants change from study to study.

Open-ended question: questions which respondent answers in his own words and is not limited by pre-offered answers.

Optical scanner:
electronic device that automatically reads a data when the questionnaire is scanned through it.

Panel: sample of respondents or stores, chosen to participate in a research project, which periodically follows their knowledge, opinions and activities.

Parallel readership: when a person reads more than one sample of publication in the period of the last issue (e.g. yesterday for a daily, last week for a weekly, last month for a monthly).

People-meter: device used to measure television viewing: who in the household is watching a certain channel. Device consists of two parts: the recording part, which is placed on the TV receiver, and the dislocated unit, similar to the TV remote control. Every member of the household, who is participating in the panel, gets his number which he then records in the people-meter when watching television. He also enters the change when he switches the channel or leaves the room. The data is gathered in the basic unit and transferred through phone line in to the main collection center at night.

Penetration: other term for coverage and range. Penetration is more specifically the ratio – usually expressed in percentage – of target market or target group. That is where the term market penetration comes from.

Personal interview:
personal conversation between the interviewer and the respondent.

Planning: process of translating the data into an effective strategy. It includes understanding people, their attitude toward brands and product, efficiency of creative ideas, developing and increasing successful brands.

Population: total number of people (e.g. residents of Slovenia) or target group.

Post-action test: study of respondent’s response after completed advertising campaign in the media.

Pre-action tes
t: 1. questionnaire test in a pilot study which helps test its effectiveness. 2. test of advertising message before its appearance in the media.

Pre-action testing:
qualitative or quantitative techniques to evaluate communication materials (advertising, packaging, image, internal communication, promotion etc.)

Price efficiency:
efficiency of the media, measure by comparing potential or actual audience and price. It is expressed in price per thousand.

Price per thousand:
price of ad which reached a thousand people in target group. It represents a price per thousand readers, viewers or listeners. Price per thousand represents a comparison between effectiveness and value, offered by titles, programs or ads.

Price per unit: price per voice message divided by rating – or – cost of larger frequency of ads divided by entire rating or GRP.

Primary data: data gathered from the research.

Product image: image, created from the characteristics of product or service. Characteristics, which are made through communication, not packaging or usage.

Publishing period: time interval during individual issues of publication

set of questions the interview is based upon.

Random sample: sample that every member of the population has the same amount of possibility of being included into.

Random sample: sample, which ensures that every member of the population has equal odds of being interviewed. Usually the most expensive, but also the best method of sampling.

Range: number or percentage of a group in population, which is exposed to the media in a certain time period.

Rating: percentage of a group in population which is following a media in a certain moment.

Readers per copy: estimate of a number of people, which read an average issue of a published issue.

Recall (after ad): most common method of testing television advertisements day after their
first showing

Recognition based on advertising: buyer or consumer recognizes certain products or services, because of the knowledge, acquired from advertising

Recruitment: process of gathering and searching for participants to take part in a market research. Criteria are usually set by demographic variables.

the person being interviewed.

Response rate:
number of successfully finished interviews or returned questionnaires, expressed in the percentage of those we wished to interview. By this we measure the ability of interviewers, to persuade people into taking part in the research. R = number of interviews / number of contacts.

ROI: generally applied to advertiser, who is trying to gain revenue on investment used for advertising in media.

selection of respondents, appropriate for the interview, from the entire population. Usually referred to those who were interviewed (successfully interviewed or returned useful questionnaires).

Sampling point:
a geographical point where the interviews take place. Areas are defined according to the structure of sample frame. Choosing the sampling points is usually the first level of multilevel sampling process (the second level being the choice of individuals in these points).

Secondary data:
data which already exists and is not gathered for the research needs (already published data in specialized publications, books, on the internet, statistical data, laws etc.)

Segmentation: division of market by segments divided by characteristics, demands or needs of users and product advantages.

Self-completion: research in which the respondents receive the questionnaire by mail or have them delivered and complete the questionnaires or diaries by themselves. Combination of both methods is possible. Self-completion is also possible electronically: through e-mail or web pages.

Share: is calculated by comparing average number of minutes of watching a program/listening to a radio station in a certain time period.

Share of voice: percentage of advertising for a single brand in the category of certain product group. Also applies to share of investment in the media.

Spontaneous recall:
technique which establishes whether the person has seen or heard the advertising message after the ending of the campaign. Interviewer doesn’t help the respondent to recall the advertising message.

the effectiveness of the sample can be increased if we know some important data and thereby connected variables about the population the sample is based on. We can achieve that by dividing sampling units according to known details and gather systematically in the predicted frames.

Target group:
a group of people we want to reach and were described to us by a client. It is set by demographic variables (age, gender…), purchasing characteristics or characteristics regarding possession of goods.

Telephone interview:
telephone conversation between researcher and interviewee or respondent.

Tracking study: is a study that tracks the effects of marketing activities through success of the brand and market. It is carried out in intervals or continued. It usually measures the brand recall, buying intentions, ad recall etc.

TV and radio ratings: television ratings present a percentage of potential TV audience in a certain time frame. They can be calculated for a period of one minute, quarter of an hour, individual advertising message or program. For program, longer than an hour, rating represents an average of all minutes in this timeframe. Television ad rating represents an estimate of audience for individual advertising message, which is expressed as a percentage of the entire target market. It is used to buy and sell television advertising. Radio ratings are expressed in a similar manner, as a percentage of population being measured. Ratings of radio advertising messages are usually based on quarter- or half hour intervals.

Unified source of information:
wide spectrum of information, gathered from the same source – individual or family (use of products, service, media consumption).

Weighed sample: a sample that has been accordingly weighed.

weighing a cell is a traditional method of weighing and includes target variables (for example age, gender, region), which are interconnected and form a matrix of target cells in the population. Weight is calculated for every call in order to receive a target group of this cell. The aim is to equalize the size of sample or population.